NHS Choices - Introduction
Hepatitis C is a virus that can infect and damage the liver.
You can become infected with hepatitis C if you come into contact with the blood or, less commonly, body fluids of an infected person.
In most cases, hepatitis C causes no noticeable symptoms until the liver has been significantly damaged.
When symptoms do occur, they are often vague and can be easily mistaken for another condition. Symptoms include:
- flu-like symptoms, such as a high temperature and loss of appetite
- feeling tired all the time
Because of this, many people remain unaware that they are infected by hepatitis C.
Read more about the symptoms of hepatitis C.
How do you get hepatitis C?
The hepatitis C virus is present in the blood and, to a much lesser extent, the saliva and semen or vaginal fluid of an infected person. It is particularly concentrated in the blood, so it is usually transmitted through blood-to-blood contact.
The most common way in England that people catch hepatitis C is by sharing equipment to inject illegal drugs.
It is estimated that up to 9 out of 10 cases of hepatitis C in this country are caused by injecting illegal drugs. Habitual drug users are not just at risk. People who have only injected drugs once in their life have been known to develop hepatitis C.
Less commonly, people can get hepatitis C through sex or being exposed to infected body fluids at work.
Read more about the causes and risk factors of hepatitis C.
Because hepatitis C often causes no obvious symptoms, testing is usually recommended if you are in a high-risk group, such as being a current or former injecting drug user.
Your GP, sexual health clinic, GUM (genitourinary medicine) clinic or drug treatment service all offer testing for hepatitis C. It can be done using a blood test.
The sooner treatment begins after exposure to the hepatitis C virus, the more likely it is to succeed.
Read more about who should be tested for hepatitis C.
Treating hepatitis C
Hepatitis C can be treated with antiviral medicines that are designed to stop the virus from multiplying inside the body and prevent liver damage.
Two widely used antiviral medications are interferon and ribavirin.
The different strains of hepatitis C are known as genotypes, and some genotypes respond better to treatment than others.
The most common genotypes of hepatitis C in England are genotypes 1, 2 and 3.
With treatment, around half of people with genotype 1 will be cured, and around 8 out of 10 people with genotypes 2 and 3 will be cured.
Two new medications, released in 2011, called boceprevir and telaprevir, have been found to be effective in some people who do not respond to conventional antiviral treatments.
Read more about treating hepatitis C.
Who is affected?
There were 7,834 reported new cases of hepatitis C in England during 2010, but the true figure is probably much higher.
It is estimated that around 255,000 people in England have hepatitis C.
Hepatitis C is more common in men than women as men are more likely to inject drugs.
Unlike other forms of hepatitis, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Two ways to reduce your risk of catching hepatitis C are:
- Never share any drug-injecting equipment with other people (not just needles, but also syringes, spoons and filters).
- Use a condom during sex.
Read more about preventing hepatitis C.
Stages of infection
The first six months of a hepatitis C infection are known as acute hepatitis C. Around one in four people will fight off the infection and will be free of the virus.
In the remaining three out of four people, the virus will stay in their body for many years. This is known as chronic hepatitis C.
Depending on other risk factors, such as alcohol use, between 10% and 40% of people with untreated chronic hepatitis C will go on to develop scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), often up to twenty years after first catching the virus.
Around one in five people with cirrhosis will then develop liver failure, and 1 in 20 will develop liver cancer, both of which can be fatal.
Read more about the complications of hepatitis C.